LAND 1          SCAPE 2       SPECIFICS 3

  1. LAND (n)
  1. FINANCIAL: Primary input and factor of production which is not consumed but without which no production is possible. It is the resource that has no cost of production and, although its usage can be switched from a less to more profitable one, its supply cannot be increased. The term 'land' includes all physical elements in the wealth of a nation bestowed by nature; such as climate, environment, fields, forests, minerals, mountains, lakes, streams, seas, and animals. As an asset, it includes anything (1) on the ground (such as buildings, crops, fences, trees, water), (2) above the ground (air and space rights), and (3) under the ground (mineral rights), down to the center of the Earth.

  1. LEGAL: not only the physical surface of land but everything growing on or underneath that surface, anything permanently affixed to the surface (such as a building) and the airspace above that surface. It includes not only the soil or earth but always any water, a pond, for example, being regarded as land covered by water. Land may be divisible both horizontally and vertically; thus, ownership of the surface may be vested in one person while ownership of mines and minerals are vested in another. It is perfectly possible to have ?flying freeholds?, where ownership of different storeys of the same building are vested in different persons.

  1. ETYMOLOGY: Old English lond, land, "ground, soil," also "definite portion of the earth's surface, home region of a person or a people, territory marked by political boundaries," from Proto-Germanic *landom (source also of Old Norse, Old Frisian Dutch, Gothic land, German Land), from PIE *lendh- (2) "land, open land, heath" (source also of Old Irish land, Middle Welsh llan "an open space," Welsh llan "enclosure, church," Breton lann "heath," source of French lande; Old Church Slavonic ledina "waste land, heath," Czech lada "fallow land").

Etymological evidence and Gothic use indicates the original Germanic sense was "a definite portion of the earth's surface owned by an individual or home of a nation." The meaning was early extended to "solid surface of the earth," a sense which once had belonged to the ancestor of Modern English earth (n.). Original senses of land in English now tend to go with country. To take the lay of the land is a nautical expression.

  1. SCAPE (n) + (v)
  1. ETYMOLOGY: The suffix scape is equivalent to the more common English suffix ship. The roots of ship are etymologically akin to Old English sceppan or scyppan, meaning to shape. The suffix schaft is related to the verb schaffen, so that ship and shape are also etymologically linked. The modern form of the word, with its connotations of scenery, appeared in the late sixteenth century when the term landschap was introduced by Dutch painters who used it to refer to paintings of inland natural or rural scenery. The word landscape, first recorded in 1598, was borrowed from a Dutch painters' term.The popular conception of the landscape that is reflected in dictionaries conveys both a particular and a general meaning, the particular referring to an area of the Earth's surface and the general being that which can be seen by an observer.

  1. APPADURAI: scapes outlined by Arjun Appadurai s essay Modernity at Large. According to Appadurai there is a mass new spread of information, culture, etc. due to globalization. His account differs from other theorization of modernity and globalization because it attempts to consider different perspectival viewpoints - or dimensions he calls SCAPES. The five -scapes are:

Ethnoscapes is the movement of people with the advent of readily available and more affordable transportation .

Mediascape is the movement of media around the world and how it allows distant cultures to view each other. Often, it creates an image of a distant culture that is skewed or narrow sighted.

Technoscapes is the flow of technology, mechanical goods, software goods, etc. in a boundaryless environment thanks to international corporations.

Financescapes is the movement of money. Now with its much larger scale of the World, money is even harder to follow than ever.

Ideoscapes is the movement of political ideas from one area to another.

Each of these -scapes are not concrete and are fluid. They are subject to every individual?s perspective and combined together, they construct every individual?s imagined worlds. Imagined worlds simply means that society is no longer defined by the apparent realities in front of us, instead, we live in a world we dream, wish and want to live in.


  1. JAMES MEYER: a process, an operation occurring between sites, a mapping of institutional and discursive filiations and the bodies that move between them. It is an informational site, a locus of overlap of text, photographs and video recordings, physical places and things...it is a temporary thing; a movement; a chain of meanings devoid of a particular focus. Which is to say the site is structured (inter)textually rather than spatially, and its model is not a map but an itinerary, a fragmentary sequence of events and actions through paces, that is, a nomadic narrative whose path is articulated by the passage of the user.

This project is a reworking of the City of Petaluma Viewshed Protection Plan. Viewsheds (the geographical area that is visible from a location) determined by the Petaluma City Planning Department, are used when evaluating applications to build on or develop an area. If the structures built negatively obstruct these viewsheds the permits are not delivered.

Over the last six months I have been working on a research project that is studying a 13.62 acre land-subject in the western-most limits of the Urban Growth Boundary. Starting 12 years ago, this undeveloped property faced development. Since then several coalitions have formed and successfully suspended construction. As the housing market continues to rise the land`s value does too. Though the coalition has been working with preservation networks, a lack of funding has prevented them from securing it.

Working with the historic viewsheds established by the City, I have made photographs from six that will be affected if this property is developed. In doing so I was drawn to the complexity of the concept landscape that these viewsheds are structured by.